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Title: Технологія напівфабрикату збивного з використанням какао-масла
Authors: Омельченко, Світлана Борисівна
Keywords: напівфабрикат збивний
поверхнево-активні речовини
піноутворююча здатність
стійкість піни
механічна міцність
ступінь дестабілізації жиру
whipped semi-finished
foam emulsion
foaming ability
foam stability
mechanical strength
the degree of fat destabilization
Issue Date: 2016
Citation: Омельченко, С.Б. Технологія напівфабрикату збивного з використанням какао-масла: автореф. дис. …канд. техн. наук: 05.18.16 – технологія харчової продукції / С.Б. Омельченко; Харківський держ. ун-т харч. та торгівлі. – Харків, 2016. – 21с.
Abstract: Омельченко С. Б. Технологія напівфабрикату збивного з використанням какао-масла.  Рукопис. Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата технічних наук за спеціальністю 05.18.16  технологія харчової продукції. – Харківський держав-ний університет харчування та торгівлі Міністерства освіти і науки України, Харків, 2016. У дисертації науково обґрунтовано та розроблено технологію напівфаб-рикату збивного з використанням какао-масла. Обґрунтовано використання сухого знежиреного молока, поверхнево-активних речовин (ПАР), какао-масла та смакових компонентів в технології на-півфабрикату збивного. Установлено залежності піноутворюючої здатності, стійкості, механічної міцності піноемульсійних систем та ступеня дестабілізації жиру від вмісту сухого знежиреного молока, ПАР, какао-масла. Обґрунтовано раціональний вміст основних рецептурних компонентів і технологічні парамет-ри виробництва напівфабрикату збивного з використанням какао-масла. Розро-блено рекомендації щодо використання напівфабрикату збивного з використан-ням какао-масла для солодких страв та кремів оздоблювальних. Розроблено та затверджено нормативну документацію (ТУ У 10.7–01566330–290:2014 «Суміш рідка для збивання «Аir cream» (Еір крім)» та технологічну інструкцію з її виробництва). Визначено економічну ефективність упровадження розробок. Omelchenko S.B. Technology of semi-finished whipped product with the use of cocoa-butter. – Manuscript. Thesis for Candidate’s degree of technical sciences by speciality 05.18.16 – Technology of Food Production. – Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade of the Ministry of Feducation and Science of Ukraine, Kharkiv, 2016. The actuality of the theme of the dissertation research is substantiated, the aim and the tasks of the research are formulated, scientific novelty and practical value of the obtained results are specified. The information concerning their approbation and realization, the author’s publications is presented, the structure and volume of the work are specified. The research presents analytical review of scientific, technical and patent litera-ture on scientific and practical aspects of creating and use of whipped semi-products with the use of oils. Modern trends of using oils, surface-active substances (SAS) infood products composition re generalized. Their role in foaming and provision of foam stability of foam-emulsive products is clarified, and the reasonability of their applica-tion is proved. The necessity of developing the technologies of the whipped semi-product for sweet dishes and decorating creams with foaming structure is scientifically substanti-ated. They re characterized by high foaming ability, foam stability, mechanical strength. No hydrogenated oils are not used in the recipes. The working hypothesis, according to which the reception of the products with foam emulsive structure based on whipped semi-product with a high foaming capacity, stability and mechanical strength, is possible due to the controlled process of the emul-sion formation, its destabilization during foaming, flotation of fat particles and their adhesion on the air particles. Based on the working hypothesis, a model of creating foaming system is de-veloped. Two stages (1 – foam formation, 2 – formation and stabilization of foam emulsion) are distinguished within this model. Composition of the system (dry skimmed milk, cocoa butter, low molecular SAS with high and low GLB, flotation agent) and the mechanism of providing technological stability of foam emulsion are forecasted. The technology of whipped semi-finished product with the use of cocoa butter is scientifically substantiated and developed in the dissertation. The application of dry semi-skimmed milk, surface-active substances (SAS), and co-coa butter and flavoring components is substantiated. Rational content of dry semi-skimmed milk is determined - 3,5…4,0% (at pH 6,8…7,0, that is provided by the in-troduction of sodium citrate), cocoa butter – 23…27%, Е472е – 0,6…0,7%, Е472b – 0,4…0,5%, Е322 – 0,25…0,35% and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose – 0,04…0,06%. Under the specified conditions foam-emulsive systems are character-ized by foaming ability 410±17%, the level of fat destabilization – 96±4% and high mechanical strength – 3100±155 Pa that is 121 times higher in comparison with the systems without low-molecular surface-active substances and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. The role of proteins and surface-active substances and their mixtures in regula-tion of foam-like, emulsive and foam-emulsive systems is determined by the specifi-cation of regularities in changes of critical voltage of interface layers on the line of water-oil and water-air phases’ division. Technological parameters of obtaining whipped semi-finished product with the use of cocoa butter are substantiated. Rational range of temperatures for the recovery of dry semi-skimmed milk and oil emulsification that equals 70…750C. Reasonable parameters and the necessity of two-stage homogenization of the emulsion at temper-atures 70…750C are determined: at the first stage - at pressure 10×106 Pа, at the sec-ond – at pressure 5×106 Pа, that permits to achieve an average diameter of fatty balls (0,2+0,01)×10-6 м. It is proved that whipping should be performed at temperature 21 4…60C for (4,5…5,0)×60 s, that guarantees foaming ability 450±22%, full level of fat destabilization and mechanical strength of foam-emulsion 3200±160 Pа. Based on the performed investigations, a number of recommendations on using the whipped semi-finished product with the use of cocoa butter for sweet dishes and creams are developed. Normative documentation (TU U 10.7-01266330-290:2014 “Liquid mixture for whipping “Air cream” and technological instruction on its manufacture) is worked out and approved. The technology of whipped semi-finished product for sweet dishes and creams with its use are approbated in catering and food industry enterprises of Ukraine. The results of scientific investigations are introduced into educational pro-cess. Social-economic efficiency of introducing the developed technology of manu-facturing whipped semi-product with the use of cocoa-butter is calculated. They prove the expediency of its manufacture and competitiveness in food market of Ukraine.
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