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Title: Товарознавча оцінка круп із гречки і проса та продуктів з їх використанням
Authors: Попова, Тетяна Миколаївна
Keywords: гречка
гречана крупа
споживні властивості
біологічна цінність
здорове харчування
consumer properties
biological value
healthy food products
bakery products
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Харків: ХДУХТ
Citation: Попова, Т.М. Товарознавча оцінка круп із гречки і проса та продуктів з їх використанням: автореф. дис. … канд. техн. наук: 05.18.15 – товарознавство харчових продуктів / Т.М. Попова; Харківський держ. ун-т харч. та торгівлі. – Харків, 2017. – 22с.
Abstract: Попова Т.М. Товарознавча оцінка круп із гречки і проса та продуктів з їх використанням.  Рукопис. Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата технічних наук за спеціальністю 05.18.15 – товарознавство харчових продуктів. – Харківський державний університет харчування та торгівлі Міністерства освіти і науки України, Харків, 2017. Комплексно досліджено хімічний склад та біологічну цінність круп із гречки шести сортів та проса п’яти сортів, найбільш перспективних для вирощування в зоні лісостепу України. Уперше досліджено в сортовому розрізі стероїдний та флавоноїдний комплекси гречаної крупи і пшона, визначено їх антиоксидантну активність. Установлено сортову специфічність накопичення крупами токсичних і антипоживних речовин. На основі розрахунку комплексного показника якості визначено пріоритетні сорти для виробництва продуктів оздоровчого призначення. Розроблено рекомендації для відбору сортів із метою більш раціонального їх використання в харчовій промисловості. За допомогою товарознавчої евристичної експертизи на основі комплексу експериментальних досліджень та результатів математичного моделювання розроблено рецептурний склад нових видів хліба на заквасках із додаванням гречаного борошна та пшона. Комплексно досліджено органолептичні, фізико-хімічні, мікробіологічні характеристики та показники безпечності нових виробів. Визначено їх споживну цінність за харчовою цінністю, ступенем перетравлюваності білкових речовин, збереженістю свіжості під час зберігання. Розроблено та затверджено нормативну документацію на нову продукцію. Результати досліджень упроваджено у виробництво та навчальний процес. Popova T. M. Commodity assessment of buckwheat and millet and products with their use. – Manuscript. Thesis for Candidate Degree of Technical Sciences by Specialty 05.18.15 – Science of Food Commodities. – Kharkiv State University of Food Technology and Trade of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, Kharkiv, 2017. The thesis is devoted to commodity assessment of buckwheat and millet of different varieties and quality formation of new health food products with use products of their processing. Chemical composition and biological value of six buckwheat varieties and five millet varieties are comprehensively studied; these varieties are the most promising for cultivation in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Varietal specificity of nutrients accumulation in cereals is established. It is determined that the most of the solids are represented by starch (58,6 ... 62,0% in buckwheat and 66,0...68,4% in millet). Depending on the variety buckwheat contains 14,5 ... 18,3% of protein substances and millet contains 9,8 ... 11,6% of protein substances. High content of fat 2,7...3,1% in buckwheat, 1,9...2,4% in millet is identified. Special feature of vitamin composition is high content of B vitamins (3,36...4,54 mg/100 g in buckwheat and 2,27...3,15 mg/100 g in millet). It is proved that buckwheat flavonoids content (23,08...49,22 mg/100 g) differs significantly from millet flavonoids content (1,07...2,21 mg/100 g). Minerals are mainly represented by phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron and mangane. Buckwheat of variety Ukrayinka and millet of variety Korolivske have the highest protein value (57,5% and 46,5% respectively). Oleic and linoleic acids are the main components of the fatty acid composition of both cereals. Buckwheat of variety Kvitnyk and millet of variety Vitrylo are leaders in content of oleic and linoleic acids. For the first time steroid complex of buckwheat and millet cereals was qualitatively and quantitatively investigated. It is proved that the samples of cereals are source of phytosterols, among which β-sitosterol is the predominant in buckwheat and stigmasterol is the predominant in millet. Also campesterol, Δ S-avenosterol, Δ7-stigmasterol, Δ7-avenosterol are identified in their composition. The total content of steroids is in the range of 22,78...52,19 mg/100 g in buckwheat and 37,77…83,76 mg/100 g in millet. Buckwheat of varieties Diuimovochka, Kosmeia and millet of varieties Korolivske, Kostiantynivske, Vitrylo are leaders according to content of steroid complex. Antioxidant activity of cereals is determined, buckwheat of variety Doshchyk and millet of variety Kozatske are characterized by the highest value of antioxidant activity. It is proved that the content of heavy metals, radionuclides, aphlotoxin В1, nitrates in buckwheat and millet of all researched varieties is much less than the maximum allowable concentration. Selective inclination of cereals to contaminants accumulation is experimentally confirmed. Priority varieties for production health food products are identified on the base of complex quality index calculation. Recommendations for the selection of varieties for their purposeful use in the food industry are presented. The use of buckwheat and millet processing products in the production of health bread products is proposed on the base of market research of consumer motivations and preferences. Hierarchical structure of new bread products consumer properties is formed with use of heuristic commodity expertise. Receipt composition of new types of bread with use of ferments with adding buckwheat and millet processing products is elaborated on the base of complex experimental studies and mathematical modeling results. Consumer value of new bread products according to organoleptic and physical and chemical characteristics, nutritional value, safety indices, the degree of proteins digestibility, freshness preservation during storage was determined. It is established that elaborated bread types compared with control samples have higher content of protein and its amino acid composition, fat fatty acid composition, vitamins, certain minerals, including magnesium, phosphorus and iron. Steroid complex of new bread types is investigated. It is established that β-sitosterol is the main phytosterol in their composition; its share is 70.0...78.1%. Steroid complex of products also contain other biologically active phytosterols, such as stigmasterol, campasterol, Δ5-avenosterynom. The use of new types of bread can provide the daily requirement of phytosterols on 24,7...46,2%. Use of the new bread products in the health and treatment and prophylactic diet for reducing cholesterol level in blood is recommended on the base of obtained results. Dynamics of changes in the quality of new products during storage were determined; the expediency of adding buckwheat flour and millet in order to slow the staling process and preserve the bread freshness was proved. Higher quality indices of new bread products compared with control samples were ascertained on the base of comprehensive commodity assessment. Social and economic efficiency of new products was proved. Regulatory documents for new types of bread were elaborated and approved. The research results are introduced into production and educational process.
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